Former US President George HW Bush, Fiat Chrysler chief executive Sergio Marchionne and Microsoft co-founder Paul Allen were among newsmakers in government, business and finance who died in 2018.
The business world lost Ingvar Kamprad, founder of the Swedish furniture empire Ikea; Charles Lazarus, who created Toys ‘R’ Us; Kate Spade, the fashion designer who built an accessories empire; Stan Lee, who turned Marvel Comics into a global entertainment juggernaut; and Albert Frere, the Belgian billionaire dealmaker whose empire stretched from energy to alcohol.
Financial leaders who died included billionaire financier and philanthropist Peter G Peterson; Richard Jenrette, co-founder of the investment bank Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette; Martin Whitman, founder and former chief investment officer at Third Avenue Management; William Bain, who formed consulting firm Bain & Co; and William McDonough, former president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.
Among deceased public sector figures were six-term US senator John McCain, former CIA chief Stansfield Turner, South African anti-apartheid activist Winnie Mandela, former US defence secretary Frank Carlucci, and former UN secretary general Kofi Annan.
Here are the year’s notable deaths. A cause is provided when known.
Jim Shaw, 60. Former chief executive officer of Shaw Communications Inc, the Canadian telecommunications company his father founded in 1966. Died January 3 following a brief illness.
Brendan Byrne, 93. Governor of New Jersey from 1974 to 1982 who brought casino gambling to the state and oversaw the local economy’s transformation to one driven by services and trade instead of manufacturing. Died January 4.
Bruce Halle, 87. Billionaire who founded Scottsdale, Arizona-based Discount Tire Co, the world’s largest independent tire and wheel retailer. Died January 4.
John Young, 87. The commander of Nasa’s first space shuttle mission, he was one of only 12 humans to walk on the moon. Died January 5 following complications from pneumonia.
Peter Sutherland, 71. The Dublin-born ex-head of the World Trade Organisation and until 2015 chairman of Goldman Sachs Group Inc’s European operations. Died January 7.
Keith Jackson, 89. Voice of US college football broadcasts for almost 40 years best known for his “Whoa, Nellie!” exclamation at big plays. Died January 12.
William Bain Jr, 80. Formed Boston-based Bain & Co, a consulting firm focused on developing long-term, strategic plans for companies, and Bain Capital, a private equity company where he was a mentor to Mitt Romney. Died January 16.
Stansfield Turner, 94. CIA director who replaced cloak-and-dagger surveillance methods with technology to keep tabs on America’s enemies during President Jimmy Carter’s administration in the 1970s. Died January 18.
Paul Bocuse, 91. One of the 20th century’s most influential chefs who built on the traditions of French haute cuisine with a distinctive style that emphasised simplicity and freshness. Died January 20 due to complications from Parkinson’s disease.
William J McDonough, 83. His decade-long tenure as Federal Reserve Bank of New York president included dealing with the near-collapse of Long-Term Capital Management LP and the aftermath of the September 11 terror attacks. Died January 22.
Ingvar Kamprad, 91. Swedish entrepreneur who founded Ikea furniture chain and became a billionaire by selling affordable, easily transportable tables, chairs and bookcases to the masses. Died January 27.
Jon Huntsman Sr, 80. Billionaire industrialist and philanthropist in Utah and the father of that state’s governor. Died February 2.
Morgan Tsvangirai, 65. The former labour union leader who led Zimbabwe’s main opposition party for almost two decades and failed to unseat Robert Mugabe as president in several elections that were marred by allegations of violence and rigging. Died February 14 following treatment for cancer.
Leo Civitillo, 43. Global head of fixed-income capital markets at New York-based Morgan Stanley who joined the bank in 2004. Died February 17.
Billy Graham, 99. Christian evangelist nicknamed ‘God’s machine gun’, who preached riveting, rapid-fire sermons to millions of people and became the confidant of world leaders including every US president from Harry Truman to George W Bush. Died February 21 after developing Parkinson’s disease and prostate cancer.
Nanette Fabray, 97. Dancer and actress whose work on Sid Caesar’s pioneering television comedy shows influenced a generation of comediennes. Died February 22.
Roger Bannister, 88. The UK athlete who as a medical student six decades ago became the first person to run a mile in less than four minutes. Died March 3 following treatment for Parkinson’s disease.
Oskar Groening, 96. Dubbed ‘The accountant of Auschwitz’, the low-ranking official was convicted at age 94 of complicity in the murder of at least 300 000 Jews at the concentration camp in Nazi-occupied Poland during World War II. Died March 9.
Hubert de Givenchy, 91. French fashion designer who dressed Jackie Kennedy and Audrey Hepburn and whose House of Givenchy became synonymous with modern elegance, then sold his brand to LVMH Moët Hennessy Louis Vuitton in 1988. Died March 10.
Stephen Hawking, 76. British physicist and black-hole theorist whose best-selling book A Brief History of Time earned worldwide acclaim, selling at least 10 million copies. Died March 14 as one of the world’s longest survivors of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease.
Tom Benson, 90. Billionaire automobile dealer who bought the New Orleans Saints football team and New Orleans Pelicans basketball team. Died March 15.
Louise Slaughter, 88. A Democrat who represented the Rochester, New York, area, she was widely known as one of the most influential champions of women’s rights in Congress. Died March 16 after suffering an injury at her Washington home.
Peter G Peterson, 91. Wall Street rainmaker with global connections who served as US Commerce secretary and emerged from a fight for control of Lehman Brothers to become a billionaire as co-founder of the private-equity firm Blackstone Group LP in New York. Died March 20.
Charles Lazarus, 94. He combined supermarket-style service with touches of whimsy in creating Toys ‘R’ Us Inc, a longtime retail success that fought high debt and fierce competition before collapsing into bankruptcy several months before his death. Died March 22.
Wayne Huizenga, 80. Billionaire entrepreneur who made Waste Management Inc and Blockbuster Video the leaders in their industries and used his wealth to buy professional baseball, football and hockey teams in Florida. Died March 22.
Peter Munk, 90. Canadian immigrant who founded Barrick Gold Corp in the early 1980s and transformed it from a small-scale operation into a global empire. Died March 28.
Winnie Madikizela-Mandela, 81. The former wife of Nelson Mandela whose reputation as a hero of the struggle to end white-minority rule in South Africa was damaged by kidnapping and fraud convictions. Died April 2.
Martin J Whitman, 93. Morningstar’s mutual fund manager of the year in 1990, he made ‘safe and cheap’ a value-investing mantra during more than two decades heading the Third Avenue Value Fund. Died April 16.
Barbara Bush, 92. The wife and mother of former US presidents George HW Bush and George W Bush, she embodied the old-fashioned sensibility that family comes before careers or politics. Died April 17.
Andy Rihs, 75. Swiss entrepreneur who became a billionaire after turning around his father’s failing hearing aids company, then co-owned a soccer club and a Tour de France-winning bicycle racing team. Died April 18.
Richard Jenrette, 89. Co-founded the investment bank Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette, the first New York Stock Exchange member to go public. Died April 22 from complications of cancer.
Afonso Dhlakama, 65. Led the Mozambique National Resistance as a rebel movement during a 16-year civil war and later as an opposition party. Died May 3.
George Deukmejian, 89. Republican governor of California who served two terms, starting in 1982, whose key initiative involved doubling the size of the state’s prison system. Died May 8.
Doug Ford, 95. World Golf Hall of Fame player whose 1957 Masters Tournament victory ended with one of the most spectacular shots in the event’s history. Died May 14.
Tom Wolfe, 88. The US author who took a new mixture of journalism and literary techniques to mind-bending heights in works such as The Bonfire of the Vanities and The Right Stuff. Died May 14.
Ray Wilson, 83. Oldest member of England’s 1966 World Cup-winning soccer squad. Died May 16.
Bernard Lewis, 101. Princeton University professor emeritus whose warnings about rising Islamic fundamentalism and a looming ‘clash of civilizations’ made him a leading scholar of the terrorism age. Died May 19.
Koo Bon-moo, 73. Chairman of LG Group, South Korea’s fourth-largest conglomerate, who transformed a local producer of cheap appliances into a global tech and chemical powerhouse. Died May 20.
Philip Roth, 85. Pulitzer-Prize-winning novelist whose works such as Portnoy’s Complaint explored post-World War II America, lust and secular Judaism. Died May 22 from congestive heart failure.
Serge Dassault, 93. French billionaire businessman and outspoken conservative politician who inherited Paris-based aircraft manufacturer Dassault Aviation, which was founded by his father. Died May 28 from heart failure.
Frank Carlucci, 87. He led the US Defense Department under President Ronald Reagan and later expanded the influence of Carlyle Group as the investment firm’s chairman. Died June 3 of complications from Parkinson’s disease.
Kate Spade, 55. Fashion designer and handbag maker who founded her namesake brand in 1993 with her husband, Andy Spade, and sold the business to Liz Claiborne in 2006. Found dead June 5 from suicide.
Red Schoendienst, 95. Hall of Fame baseball player who won World Series titles with the St Louis Cardinals as a player and manager. Died June 6.
Anthony Bourdain, 61. Celebrity chef in New York best known for his CNN series Parts Unknown, where he explored the culture, politics and cuisine of nations across the globe. Found dead June 8 from suicide.
Kazuo Kashio, 89. One of four brothers who founded Tokyo-based Casio Computer Co, which popularised pocket calculators and shock-proof wristwatches. Died June 18 from pneumonia.
Charles Krauthammer, 68. Pulitzer Prize-winning columnist whose frequent appearances on cable news programmes made him an influential proponent of conservative causes. Died June 21 of cancer of the small intestine.
Kim Jong-pil, 92. Founder of South Korea’s spy agency whose political skills helped him also serve twice as prime minister. Died June 23.
Jacques Saade, 81. He fled from war in Lebanon in the 1970s to become a billionaire in France as head of Marseille-based CMA CGM SA, the world’s third-largest container shipping line. Died June 24.
Joe Jackson, 89. Guided his children, including Michael Jackson, to pop stardom in the Jackson 5 during the 1970s and spent the rest of his life fending off allegations of abusive parenting. Died June 27 following treatment for pancreatic cancer.
Wang Jian, 57. Co-chairman of HNA Group Co, the Chinese conglomerate that sold billions of dollars in assets recently amid soaring borrowing costs. Died July 3 from a fall.
Claude Lanzmann, 92. French film director whose 9½-hour masterpiece Shoah bore unflinching witness to the Holocaust through the testimonies of Jewish victims, German executioners and Polish bystanders. Died July 5.
Shoko Asahara, 63. Imprisoned leader of the Japanese doomsday cult responsible for the 1995 sarin-gas attack on Tokyo’s subway that killed 13 people and sickened thousands. Died July 6 by execution.
Lord Carrington, 99. House of Lords member who served six UK prime ministers and was the last survivor of Winston Churchill’s administration. Died July 9.
Becky Vail, 48. Co-founder of Millstreet Capital Management, a Boston-based hedge fund, where she was chief financial officer as well as head of operations and compliance. Died July 17 from breast cancer.
Sergio Marchionne, 66. Former CEO at London-based Fiat Chrysler Automobiles NV and architect of the automaker’s dramatic turnaround. Died July 25 following complications from surgery.
Ron Dellums, 82. California Democrat with a focus on civil rights who entered the US House of Representatives in 1971 as a black liberal who opposed the Vietnam War. Died July 30.
Paul Laxalt, 96. Republican US senator from Nevada who was President Ronald Reagan’s closest friend and confidante in Congress. Died August 6.
VS Naipaul, 85. Nobel Prize-winning author who was born in Trinidad of Indian ancestry and lived in the UK writing unsparing novels about colonisers and liberation movements in Africa and the Caribbean. Died August 11.
Atal Bihari Vajpayee, 93. Former prime minister who transformed India into a nuclear-armed nation and ignited a weapons race in South Asia. Died August 16.
Aretha Franklin, 76. Former gospel singer who went on to reign over the music industry as the Queen of Soul with hit songs such as Respect, Chain of Fools and (You Make Me Feel Like) a Natural Woman and was the first female inductee of the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Died August 16 of pancreatic cancer.
Kofi Annan, 80. Ghanaian diplomat who was the first UN secretary general from sub-Sahara Africa and won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2001. Died August 18.
Vaughn Beals Jr, 90. Executive credited with resurrecting the Harley-Davidson motorcycle from the brink of bankruptcy in the 1980s to a symbol of made-in-America pride. Died August 19.
John McCain, 81. The 2008 Republican presidential nominee and Vietnam war hero who was a senior voice on defence and foreign policy in the US Senate, where he had served since 1987. Died August 25 following treatment for glioblastoma, an aggressive form of brain cancer.
Neil Simon, 91. His Broadway plays including Barefoot in the Park, The Odd Couple and Lost in Yonkers made him the most commercially successful playwright of his time. Died August 26 of complications from pneumonia.
Richard DeVos Sr, 92. Billionaire co-founder of the Amway direct-selling empire who used his fortune to buy the Orlando Magic basketball team and back conservative political causes. Died September 6.
Burt Reynolds, 82. US actor who starred in movies such as Deliverance, The Longest Yard and Smokey and the Bandit, which established him as a likeable, adventurous rogue. Died September 6 from cardiac arrest.
Clayton Riddell, 81. Founded Canadian oil company Paramount Resources in 1976 and co-owned the National Hockey League’s Calgary Flames team. Died September 15.
Tran Dai Quang, 61. Elected president of Vietnam in 2016, he advocated expanding the nation’s private sector and developing closer ties with the US. Died September 21.
Charles Aznavour, 94. Known as ‘the French Frank Sinatra’, he recorded more than 1 400 songs and appeared in more than 60 films while pursuing his passion for Armenian causes during a lifelong career in show business. Died October 1.
Jamal Khashoggi, 59. Prominent Saudi Arabian journalist and critic of the Saudi government who lived in the US and worked as a Washington Post columnist. Murdered on October 2 by Saudi agents in their nation’s consulate in Istanbul.
Leon Lederman, 96. Nobel Prize-winning US physicist who co-discovered one of the universe’s subatomic building blocks before coining the term ‘God particle’ to describe the mechanism that gives mass to matter. Died October 3.
Alex Spanos, 95. Billionaire real-estate developer who in 1984 purchased the National Football League’s San Diego Chargers team, now called the Los Angeles Chargers. Died October 9.
William Coors, 102. Heir to the Coors brewing dynasty who helped transform a local product into a national brand while promoting conservative views and anti-union policies that led to consumer boycotts. Died October 13.
Paul Allen, 65. Billionaire who co-founded Microsoft Corp. with Bill Gates and used his fortune to invest in professional sports teams, cable TV and real estate. Died October 15 from complications of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.
Wanda Ferragamo, 96. She turned her husband’s Italian shoe company into a luxury-goods empire after taking over Florence, Italy-based Salvatore Ferragamo SpA more than 50 years ago. Died October 19.
Walter Kwok, 68. Former chairman of Hong Kong real-estate firm Sun Hung Kai Properties, who was kidnapped in 1997 by a local gang leader. Died October 20.
Gilberto Benetton, 77. Co-founded the Italian family’s namesake apparel company more than 50 years ago and oversaw its diversification into infrastructure, food service and finance. Died October 22.
Terry Laughlin, 63. Bank of America vice chairman, who ran its $2.8 trillion wealth-management business. Died October 25.
Vichai Srivaddhanaprabha, 60. Thai billionaire whose fortune came from King Power Group’s empire of duty-free stores and who stunned the sports world by taking perennially mediocre Leicester City to the pinnacle of English soccer in 2016. Died October 27 in a helicopter crash.
James ‘Whitey’ Bulger, 89. Boston mob boss and informant who corrupted FBI agents, murdered his associates and spent 16 years on the run. Found murdered in his prison cell on October 30 while serving a life sentence.
Jeremy Heywood, 56. Influential former UK cabinet secretary and head of the civil service. Died November 4 from cancer.
Evelyn Y Davis, 89. Self-proclaimed ‘queen of the corporate jungle’ who turned public companies’ annual meetings into stages for a theatrical, confrontational and self-promoting version of shareholder activism. Died November 4.
Stan Lee, 95. The head of Marvel Comics who brought a modern sensibility to comic books and provided lucrative fodder for Hollywood as co-creator of imperfect superheroes such as Spider-Man, the Incredible Hulk, X-Men and Iron Man. Died November 12.
Igor Korobov, 62. Head of the Russian military’s main intelligence agency, known as the GRU, which was accused of interference in the 2016 US presidential election and the nerve-agent poisoning of an exiled double-agent in the UK earlier this year. Died November 21.
Robert C McNair, 81. Founding owner of the NFL’s Houston Texans team. Died November 23 following treatment for cancer.
George Ty, 86. Billionaire founder of the Philippines’ second-largest lender, Metropolitan Bank & Trust Co, and Toyota Motor Corp’s partner in the southeast Asian nation. Died November 23.
Bernardo Bertolucci, 77. Italian film director best known for the steamy Last Tango in Paris and The Last Emperor, which earned him an Oscar for directing. Died November 26.
George HW Bush, 94. The 41st US president whose single term in office was notable for its restrained response to the fall of the Soviet Union and a military victory that liberated Kuwait from an Iraqi invasion. Died November 30.
Albert Frere, 92. Belgian billionaire whose investments shaped some of Europe’s largest companies in more than a half-century of deal-making. Died December 3.
Lyudmila Alexeyeva, 91. Led the oldest Russian human-rights organisation and was a driving force behind the civil-rights movement in the Soviet Union. Died December 8.
Nelson Martinez, 68. Former Venezuelan oil minister who once led refiner Citgo Holding Inc. Died December 12 while in custody following his arrest in 2017 as part of a crackdown on alleged corruption and illegal crude oil sales.
John Hickey, 50. Managing director at Stifel Financial Corp who worked in the firm’s institutional equities sales and trading group in New York. Died December 13 when he was struck by a train.
Colin Kroll, 34. Co-founder and CEO of the HQ Trivia quiz app who had previously helped start Vine, a short-format video start-up acquired by Twitter. Found dead in his home on December 16.
Penny Marshall, 75. Actress who starred in the sitcom Laverne & Shirley before becoming one of the top-grossing female directors in Hollywood with films such as Big and A League of Their Own. Died December 17 due to complications from diabetes.
Jim Rogers, 71. Duke Energy Corp’s CEO from 2006 to 2013, when he agreed to step down as part of a settlement with regulators probing the company’s takeover of Progress Energy. Died December 17.
Tyrone Thomas, 42. Citigroup Inc’s head of North American loan sales, who also worked to attract and retain a more diverse workforce at the bank. Died following treatment for brain cancer, his managers informed colleagues on December 18.